Tuesday, January 31, 2017

International Environmentalism: CBD to Marine Expansion

Paul Andreas Fischer
Professor Katlyn Morris

International Environmentalism: CBD to Marine Expansion

Sustainability efforts today are not only being led by scientists, but also by storytellers. There is still a place for scientific progress in the field, and books written by academics such as E. O. Wilson do lend both a level of credence and outreach not just to communities in America, but also in more severely impacted areas, but perhaps because of the dominance of scientific evidence the field has experienced the largest period of growth in human history. There are a few critical techniques which develop an effective agency or community in preserving the natural resources which have been made available to a government or people.
The late 1980s saw the rise of businesses compliant with the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and represented an attempt by the private sector to outgrow the problems such as health consequences and ecological destruction which were being and continue to be experienced (Morris et al., 9). By protecting national rights to contaminate areas with pollutants, the CBD proved too narrow in its approach. This signified a significant improvement to early environmental efforts which relied heavily on governmental agencies to achieve specific goals such as the creation of an endangered species list and promotion of the framework for global co-operation on matters of natural concern.
None of this was lost in importance, however, and each provided important precedence for the international explosion of preserved natural resources. Beginning during the Presidencies of George Bush and Bill Clinton, the definition of protected areas was expanded to include significant amounts of marine territories. For the first time, the actions of those who hoped to conserve the environment began to match the expansion of industrial concerns.
Technically existent since 1958, with the Law of the Sea (Board OSNRC, 146), current news has seen the establishment of record marine preserves established under George W. Bush and Barack Obama in the United States. American efforts have led internationally, but a resolution in 1994 by the UN created a legal obligation for the creation of such reserves, an extremely effective measure (149). That legislation represented a trend of growth which has continued unchecked and which saw the size of marine reserves increase by ten-fold from 1970 to the date of signature.


Board, Ocean Studies, and National Research Council. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystem. National Academies Press, 2001.

Morris, Katlyn, Nelson, Ingrid, Mendez, Ernesto, Ali, Saleem. (2015). International Environmental Studies (1st). USA: Cognella.

Thursday, January 19, 2017

Recreational Marijuana Data Integrity Verification

Paul Andreas Fischer

Recreational Marijuana Data Integrity Verification

The purpose of this effort to maintain cybersecurity will be to identify trends in community activity, usage, and coding on three webpages. This will be measured in a weighted per capita membership inclusive of adjustment for last month marijuana usage according to statistics of diagnoses of marijuana use dependency in the last year sourced through the National Institute of Health, statistical significance testing for key HTML or python coding which may be present on the pages ranging from common use terms such as margin and italic/bold to design oriented coding such as getOptions and fix, and finally using a theoretical W3C validation scheme borrowed from a co-operative effort by employees of Drop-box, Google, and Mozilla.
An effort throughout will be made to avoid redundancies in data and to reduce reliance on contingent terminology in order to establish statistical significance in further analysis. While this will not be used to justify any legal actions or hold significant ramifications for user, community, or legislative individuals or groups due to the hypothetical nature of the theories of security fundamental to the arguments provided, the data may be accessed and used publicly and reproduced. As with all research looking at differences in data, change over time will be critical to determining whether this is an appropriate sequence to validate the integrity of the media distributed. This data is accessed legally under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act as encryption research to enhance secure methods of encryption technologies (section 1201(g)), to measure and protect personal privacy (section 1201(i)), and security testing should readers wish to check their own computer, computer system, or computer network (section 1201(j)).

Data results

Per capita membership or following:

Conservative estimate,
Vermont Community, Vermont Collection, Colorado Community
.085%, .075%, .6%

Keyword search statistical significance test from raw test raw data with high-end tail comparison

“input” - Vermont Community, Vermont Collection, Colorado Community
“_” -  8335, 8933, 8816
“”” - 10,916, 11,181, 10,670
“head” - 48, 49, 49
“fix” - 12, 12, 15
“array” - 108, 110, 108
“marijuana” - 41, 57, 21
“cannabis” - 37, 29, 4
“meta” - 22, 21, 22
“content” - 240, 252, 259
“function” - 2264, 2256, 2264
“getOptions” - 3, 3, 3
“window” - 420, 417, 420
“element” - 125, 125, 125
“null” - 5226, 5489, 4582
“try” - 155, 159, 158
“dump” - 53, 54, 53
“exec” - 51, 51, 51
“recreational“ - 16, 24, 17
“google” - 183, 181, 205
“script” - 79, 75, 79
“true” - 151, 160, 127
“$” - 284, 284, 284

Theoretical Validation Scheme

This scheme has been chosen because it allows authentication of not only the server, which is standard in such attempts, but also the content which has been posted to the respective pages. With a variety of pegged user handles and other contributions involved in the creation and maintenance of a controlled substance which is limited in distribution to those over a certain age, and in some locations can be met with severe legal repercussions, there is an intrinsic value to vetting cyber information.
In order to avoid such misunderstandings, a thorough read through of all source data was initiated and completed with the following results. Rather than sifting through user data or implementing a cryptographic hash system recommended in the theoretical scheme, evaluating the cross-origin data leakage to identify reconnaissance activities by potential or real attackers was initiated (SRI, 5.3). This is both non-intrusive, experimental, and potentially more accurate for the purposes of identification than traditional methods of code evaluation.

Discussion of data, results and conclusions

Cannabis Use Rates and Trends

The growth in Colorado is under 30% in recent years, marking a substantially larger presence than has been found in Vermont. Statistical analysis found ratios of 1:1.25:1.5 from .2% of the total populations of the respective states in the Vermont Collection, Vermont Community, and Colorado Community that were admitted to the hospital for potential marijuana dependent symptoms according to a recent update from the White House which cites data from 2010. Multiplied by a cohort with an average life expectancy of 78 years, this data could encompass almost 60% of current marijuana users. This could also comprise the entirety of the population have used before entering High School, according to a report released by the UN in 2014.
A statistically interesting point that is not addressed in this paper is that the trend for admission for marijuana related episodes shows a dramatic variance in those two populations, as the number of marijuana users per capita was about 30-40% higher in Colorado at the time. Potential explanations include the presence of higher potency marijuana in Vermont due to lack of effective regulations during the transition period of decriminalization. Another could be adulterants such as lead which decrease the flashpoint at which a joint or a bowl is lit, increasing the temperature at which smoked material is absorbed or the popularity of edibles which may be more potent than a smoked product, as there are nearly a third more tobacco users in Colorado per capita than Vermont.

Keyword search with statistical significance analysis

A perfect match was reached in four of 22 source code searches, nearly 20% of the total results. Taken as an outlier result, this demonstrates definite significance. Two of three quantitative forms found a perfect match in exactly half of the searches. The natural odds of these events occurring are one over 4.2 times 100,000,000. This determines that there is a high probability of interactivity occurring between these web-based pages.
While there are no prohibitions between communications of two online communities, this can also serve as a template to verify that such communication is not occurring between any of the communities and communities tailored towards those who underage. It is also a possible indicator of a malware presence, which could include a BOTNET, synthetic code injector algorithm, sniffing agents or most likely a combination of all of the above. In order for any confirmed statements to be made with only a statistical analysis, causal proof of intent of harm or defamation and malware cyber-activity must be demonstrated. To accomplish this, an experimental form of subresource integrity is being modified and taken advantage of, referred to above as cross-origin data leakage.

DIV and Cross-Origin Data Leakage

The initial read-through looked great, though there is a major qualification which ought to be addressed present one time only in all three communities that likely represents a violation of amendments to the CFAA in 1984. Due to recent legislation and expansion of that act, these consequences could be quite serious if not administratively addressed and the responsible posts promptly deleted, though no legal responsibilities exist unless the display represents an extension or whole of a small business. Colorado had significantly greater evidence of hash use, but all three communities/collection presented enough to provide a strong sense of security. Cross-origin analysis demonstrated that “content-originated” was indeed activated upon execution of the HTML. No flag presented or evidence of any tampering of any kind.
Further analysis of the entirety of the source code, around 30 solid pages for each community, revealed the presence of a flag which discontinues the cross-origin protections and which could allow a JSON style attack, gaining access to passwords or other confidential credentials. This should allow a violation of the “same-origin” policy and may have been used to determine what content is present within the cross-origin resource. Whether this setting is coded on or off, the threat level is ultimately low.

Valuation of any Potential Threat to the Pages

A discretionary valuation of a low threat level had to be ultimately determined as users accessing the site are still protected by Google security and terms of use, i.e. dedication to privacy outlined above in this document and codified in recent US law for cyberspace, as well as amendment to the Constitution. The presence of an “Anonymous” omission of cross-origin protections is present at one time in the HTML code of all three websites. That does not indicate that the tool has been exploited. Unless there is an experimental lab underway through Google, the only data which should be accessible in the event of a general breach throughout the company would be the user names and profiles of individuals who are on the pages.
However, the possibility that it is a “wait and see” placement should be treated with caution as well as corrective measures should be taken to eliminate the offensive code from the pages. It is worth mentioning, once again, that the only parties which have any liabilities for such a piece of code are those who posted the sequence and any small business owners involved with the pages that may have turned a blind-eye or aided the malware. Possible legal explanations which could indicate that one did not know about updates to the CFAA or if the code had been prepared before 1984 may be possible, but even if it is the case, does not mean that the threat or potential threat should not be snuffed immediately.


Braun, F., Akhawe, D., Weinberger, J., & West, M.. Subresource integrity. W3C working draft. (2014).
The Digital Millennium Copyrights Act. 17 U.S.C. § 512 (1998).
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Recent statistics and trend analysis of the illicit drug market. (2014).
W3C Recommendation. HTML5, A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML, W3 (2014).

Sunday, January 15, 2017

Notes on Killswitch

Criminality as a crime of curiosity
crime of outsmarting
-Aaron Swartz

Information as the new gold, oil
Like Diamonds, worth trillions of dollars
Control yields wealth and power

Eg control of information on climate change
saves trillions of dollars in regulation

Tim Wu
  open and culturally dynamic, similarities to the radio and other industries
  early decentralization, chaos and unpredictable
   yields later consolidation, which feels good, but later we rue what we have lost
Lawrence Lessig
  desire for our own blog, tweet about the candidate etc
   engagement as owners in the political process
  freedom is embedded in the political technology

The advent of the mouse into the silicon bubble
  the advent of net neutrality by Tim Wu
  creates the history of the information industries
  a powerful and abundant opportunity to control minds of people in the nations as a company which controls information as a function of powerful monopolies... forces which are interested in reversing the interests of the internet into a commercial project -> the function of money in the cooperative commons of communications threatens the republic
  This is a fundamental issue to the formation of the United States which remains to this day

Peter Ludlow
  covers online gaming company
  Sims online and use of cyberprostitutes yielded viral release of the blog but banning from the game, conventional success and all...

Lawrence Lessig
  Legal corruption vs. illegal corruption
  belief that money buys results in congress which is protected by the constitution
  The difference between the tiny slice of the population that makes decision and the will of the people

Tim Wu
  insensitivity of the public to the concept of money in politics
  whether the network can remain the place of political ends

Lawrence Lessig
  to allow for overcoming government corruption through the unit organize for specific political roles, an end to end p2p architecture
  not to say that there is a likelihood for victory, but there is no likliehood if the structure of the internet is lost

peter ludlow
  there will be no victory or losses through the internet, sniping and fighting over the internet is occurring behind the curtain, and the rigged game needs to be unraveled
  Hacktivist as one who takes traditional technologies and repurposes it for social and political causes
  using tech like twitter and using it in ways which were never expected, for revolution
  CFAA in the wake of Wargames
     Computer Fraud and Abuse Act prohibits use of a computer for a use which was unintended
     Fine print contains thousands of things which are against the law... eg. age creates a felon status from the use of many online services which are limited to 18 and up
     So then the system decides which characters are threats to the system and pursue them

Aaron Swarz - Creative Commons 2006
   The internet provides a communication which is nonexistant in books or other services
   designed RSS at 14, 15 CC and 19 on infoGami which combined with Reddit
But Aaron becomes a hacker
Lawrence Lessig: we need to celebrate the activity of hacking as the use of tech knowledge to advance a public good

Guerilla Open Access Manifesto: information is power, but like all power those who have it do not want to share
  Release of documents prohibits stopping of documents

Cory BoingBoing
 PACER illegally accessed by Aaron Swartz
  Then began work on JSTOR

The history of interesting work, of scientists should have been available to people
  access to a wide variety of scholarly articles
  the access fees were substantial and locked out from scientific legacy
  a little bit of magic makes those available to everyone
  civil disobedience was worth it for the access to the scientific knowledge of the world
  arrested by MIT and Secret Service

Google and Verizon power over net neutrality vote
  Tim Wu: legality of blocking hulu or bing no longer allowed by the carriers of internet service
  the once exciting new media becomes increasingly closed and dominated by the oligopoly
  government like monopoly because they can be used to their ends
  The use of monopolies to give republican candidates the vote with the institution of the telegraph lines in the United States, has been replicated with the cyber era
  Governments tend to like information monopolists, which creates a system which is very close to fascism

1984, George Orwell: "don't let it happen"
  shadowy figures or systems as a part of the intelligence system which Ed Snowden believed int he goodness and nobility of the intentions to free people overseas
  Over time, exposure to true information had not been propagandized in the media
  requires actual involvement in the SUnni republic, the NSA specifically targets the communcations of everyone by default
  communication and storage of data creates a dangerous capability for anywone to have

Peter Ludlow:
  The extra information is actually undermining security, would rather have the NSA out there spying on terrorists etc...
  Data mining as ineffective, despite the talk from the NSA, the real possibility needs to be addressed that it may be making us less safe

Lawrence Lessig
  building the machine to deal with the terrors, has now been reprocessed to address every system which has been described
  the threatening of liberty or innovation

Computer Fraud Prosecution of Aaron Swartz was targeted as a result of his politics

Kim Dotcom
  Aaron Swartz became a political target

Aaron Swartz was charged with four felonies for his actions
  there has to be laws and control on the internet
  necessity to shut down criminals and those stealing foreign jobs....

Chris Dodd
  Democratic lobbyist MPAA for motion pictures, which would include laws passed through Congress, and created the support as a victory lap which would be a simple and efficient way to take pirate sites down... the fundamental difference between being on the side of the pirates and allowing content owners to get the government to legally shut down such websites by force

The Stop Online Piracy Act 2011
  Sort of activity which should be celebrated, not regulated when films are remixed... recombination was attempted to be prohibited,
  addressing the possibility that internet regulation would end the internet
  attitude of a tyrant, the fighting back of the citizens begins as organic movements by citizens saw a change occur in the mechanisms

Websites protest anti-piracy bills
demonstration of psychological dependence on the MPAA, but now the giant has woken up, which allows the framing of issues into this libertarian and liberal alliance. The Internet has woken up.

Hard to believe to remember the story, that there was no dream or nightmare, but the understanding that this would occur again

There is no question that the content industry is behind this, the saga of the movement of Dotcom
  "don't vote for the guys who are against internet freedom"
  the billions of dollars which were lost by multinational corporations because of the behaviors
description of Aaron Swartz as a hero
  Swartz is followed by 9 violations of the CFAA
   bankrupted and facing 35 years in jail, he hung himself

Nothing was known by his girlfriend about what happened, he had rational depression
  this was a person who was pushed to the edge by a bullying by our government
  there are a thousand things each of us could have done, and we have to do because he has now become an icon and an ideal to fight for for the rest of our lives

Carl Malamud: Aaron swartz was not a criminal, the accusations levied against him were crimes against justice, a misuse of the criminal system.

why there was an expectation to ever win as long as there was a corrupt government

Ed Snowden as an expression of creativity, love, friendship all recorded
  authority ot deputize corporate america to do dirty work for NSA
  millions were paid through PRISM other systems for data
  becoming an instrument of government action
  using a system to go back in time and discuss every decision which has ever been made
  Importance of the charge of espionage even when he did not work for a foreign government
  do we want prison for life for people like that?
  What is the determination that is important to you?
  How was Snowden able to outmaneuver the top spy agency in the nation twice on the way to Moscow?
Episodic invasions of privacy, included virtual invasions of privacy
  The question continually arose for the surveillance with restrictions for the way that data and confidence can be invaded
  We knew the story was coming
  The NSA does not wittingly collect data on millions of Americans
  Snowden lied in the law to everyone but Greenwald was the columnist who broke the story
  9/11 commission made the US government information clear without connection of the dots, not a problem of collecting information but of knowing what the data points are, exemplified by the Boston Marathon killing
  Duty to uphold the constitution of the USA, enslaved part of a 1984 dystopia, Aaron Swartz as a guy who did what he ought to have done, in the minefield of copyright
  extraordinary influence extant, especially on the democratic party, created necessity for information to flow freely, but no mercy was shown by Obama Administration to cases which involved copyright

The Obama necessity to appear strong in dealing with Edward Snowden

Government as a corruption of capitalism
  creation of a benefits governmetn through necessary procurement of money, not through illegal bribery precisely, about economies interested in protection not in competition

Tim Wu
   Downtown New York had a plan to preserve urban areas which has been paralleled in the national forestry work, creates a change in consciousness which yields a change in net neutrality

Peter Ludlow
  shifting consciousness about race, environment, women's rights in the 60s and another one is occurring today, a raising of consciousness, suspicion that this is just the beginning stages...
  Fundamental corruption

Lawrence Lessig
  We are one people who have promised to make a government that is dependent on one people, if you are contingent to one people you are party to such a system.

The importance of unity in democracy